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A defendant's court papers that seek to reverse the thrust of the lawsuit by claiming that it was the plaintiff -- not the defendant -- who committed legal (more...)
A defendant's court papers that seek to reverse the thrust of the lawsuit by claiming that it was the plaintiff -- not the defendant -- who committed legal wrongs, and that as a result it is the defendant who is entitled to money damages or other relief. Usually filed as part of the defendant's answer -- which also denies plaintiff's claims -- a counterclaim is commonly but not always based on the same events that form the basis of the plaintiff's complaint. For example, a defendant in an auto accident lawsuit might file a counterclaim alleging that it was really the plaintiff who caused the accident. In some states, the counterclaim has been replaced by a similar legal pleading called a cross-complaint. In other states and in federal court, where counterclaims are still used, a defendant must file any counterclaim that stems from the same events covered by the plaintiff's complaint or forever lose the right to do so. In still other states where counterclaims are used, they are not mandatory, meaning a defendant is free to raise a claim that it was really the plaintiff who was at fault either in a counterclaim or later as part of a separate lawsuit.
The failure of a bequest of property in a will. The gift fails (is 'adeemed') because the person who made the will no longer owns the property when he or she (more...)
The failure of a bequest of property in a will. The gift fails (is 'adeemed') because the person who made the will no longer owns the property when he or she dies. Often this happens because the property has been sold, destroyed or given away to someone other than the beneficiary named in the will. A bequest may also be adeemed when the will maker, while still living, gives the property to the intended beneficiary (called 'ademption by satisfaction'). When a bequest is adeemed, the beneficiary named in the will is out of luck; he or she doesn't get cash or a different item of property to replace the one that was described in the will. For example, Mark writes in his will, 'I leave to Rob the family vehicle,' but then trades in his car in for a jet ski. When Mark dies, Rob will receive nothing. Frustrated beneficiaries may challenge an ademption in court, especially if the property was not clearly identified in the first place.
To deliberately prevent someone from inheriting something. This is usually done by a provision in a will stating that someone who would ordinarily inherit (more...)
To deliberately prevent someone from inheriting something. This is usually done by a provision in a will stating that someone who would ordinarily inherit property -- a close family member, for example -- should not receive it. In most states, you cannot completely disinherit your spouse; a surviving spouse has the right to claim a portion (usually one-third to one-half) of the deceased spouse's estate. With a few exceptions, however, you can expressly disinherit children.
The person or institution designated to receive trust property upon the death of a life beneficiary. For example, Jim creates a trust through which his wife (more...)
The person or institution designated to receive trust property upon the death of a life beneficiary. For example, Jim creates a trust through which his wife Jane receives income for the duration of her life. Their daughter, the final beneficiary, receives the trust principal after Jane's death.
inter vivos trust
The Latin name, favored by some lawyers, for a living trust. 'Inter vivos' is Latin for 'between the living.'
heir at law
A person entitled to inherit property under intestate succession laws.
Under some state's probate codes, all relatives of a deceased person.
A trust designed to lessen a family's overall estate tax liability. An AB trust is the most popular kind of bypass trust.
power of appointment
The legal authority to decide who will receive someone else's property, usually property held in a trust. Most trustees can distribute the income from a trust (more...)
The legal authority to decide who will receive someone else's property, usually property held in a trust. Most trustees can distribute the income from a trust only according to the terms of the trust, but a trustee with a power of appointment can choose the beneficiaries, sometimes from a list of candidates specified by the grantor. For example, Karin creates a trust with power of appointment to benefit either the local art museum, symphony, library or park, depending on the trustee's assessment of need.
... [¶ 4] Four years after Harry Wayne Conley's death in 2001, Harry Wayne Conley's nephews, Albert
Conley and Colin Conley, initiated the probate of Harry Wayne Conley's estate and moved the
district court to appoint them co-personal representatives of Harry Wayne Conley's ...
... [¶5] In September 2005, the district court appointed Opal Myrvik as personal representative of
Ernest Samuelson's estate and admitted his will to informal probate. ... [¶13] Section 30.1-04-01,
NDCC, closely tracks section 2-101 of the 1990 Uniform Probate Code. ...
... [¶ 3] Following Tony Eggl's death, Donald Eggl and Janet Eggl, Tony Eggl's nephew and
sister-in-law, filed an application for informal probate and appointment as co-personal
representatives. ... An unsupervised probate, governed by NDCC ch. ...