California Labor Code §1400 affords us the following definitions: under Sec. (c) layoff means a “separation from a position for lack of funds or lack of work.â€ This means that there is no fault on the part of the employee for a layoff and the employee may be eligible for unemployment and other benefits.
The same paragraph, Sec. (f) defines the word “terminationâ€ as “the cessation or substantial cessation of industrial or commercial operations in a covered establishment.â€ Thus TERMINATION and LAYOFF are the same, but while the former refers to the termination of the business, the latter terminates the employee. Again, there is no stigma attached to “termination.â€
What does “being firedâ€ mean in this context? The state of California follows the “at willâ€ presumption, which means that in the absence of an employment contract, there is a presumed “at willâ€ employment. Under “at willâ€ an employee can be fired for any reason or no reason at all, but the reason, if any, may not be unlawful. Unlike with a layoff or termination, the term “I was firedâ€ usually carries the stigma of “for a cause,â€ such as being late to work, or not performing one’s duties. Employers who are “firingâ€ their at will employees for “lack of funds or lack of workâ€ should therefore use the term layoff or state that they are “terminatingâ€ the employment.
The most common “unlawful reasonâ€ for firing an employee is usually some kind of public policy violation, which may amount to “wrongful termination.â€ If there is an apparent “causal connectionâ€ between the policy violation, there may be sufficient grounds for a “wrongful terminationâ€ action. This causal connection is often in the form of a retaliation against the employee for something he or she has rightfully done:
If an employer discharged an employee in violation of rights granted by the First Amendment to the US Constitution.
If an employer violates his or her own discharge policy (written or implied).
If an employer the employment-related provisions in the Bankruptcy act or Fair Credit Reporting Act.
If an employer violates of a federal or state discrimination law.
If an employer discharged or fired an employee in retaliation for whistle blowing, wage garnishing, exercising union rights, serving in a military, and legally taking a leave under the Family and Medical Leave Act.
Interestingly, some courts (though not all) also recognize the Good Faith and Fair Dealing exception to At-Will Employment. This is a contract concept, which states that although employees are employed “at will,â€ there is a covenant of good faith and fair dealing between them and the employer, prescribing the latter to treat them fairly: the employer may not be transferring employees to prevent them from collecting sales commissions, misleading them about their chances for promotions and wage increases, fabricating reasons for firing an employee when the real motivation is to replace that employee with someone who will work for lower pay, repeatedly transferring an employee to remote, dangerous, or otherwise undesirable assignments to coerce the employee into quitting without collecting severance pay or other benefits that would normally be due.